Wikipedia Estland


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Wikipedia Estland

Offizielle Informationen über Tourismus in Estland und wichtige Fakten zu Kultur, Wetter, Tourismus, Einkaufen, Stadtplänen, Sehenswürdigkeiten und vielem. Von nicht notwendigen, touristischen Reisen in die übrigen Regionen Estlands wird vor dem Hintergrund geltender Quarantäneregelungen abgeraten. Der Artikel wird gebraucht, wenn „Estland“ in einer bestimmten Qualität, zu einem [1] Wikipedia-Artikel „Estland“: [1] Goethe-Wörterbuch „Estland“: [1] Uni.

Über Estland

Geographisch liegt Estland jedoch im Baltikum. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Name; 2 Geschichte. Offizielle Informationen über Tourismus in Estland und wichtige Fakten zu Kultur, Wetter, Tourismus, Einkaufen, Stadtplänen, Sehenswürdigkeiten und vielem. Energie wird in Estland größtenteils durch die großen Ölschiefervorkommen im 27 Wikipedia, Februar von chaletsvolcanos.com

Wikipedia Estland Navigatiónsskrá Video

Städttrip nach Tallinn

Wikipedia Estland Estland;, officielt Republikken Estland, er et land i den baltiske region i Nordeuropa. Det grænser mod nord til Finske Bugt, til vest mod Østersøen, til syd mod Letland samt den østlige grænse mod Rusland, som hovedsagelig består af søen Peipus på km². Estland har søgrænser over Østersøen mod vest med Sverige og Finland i nord. Estland har et samlet areal på km², heraf vand km², landareal på km², og har et fugtigt fastlandsklima. Estland er en. Total number of COVID cases in Estonia per 10, inhabitants as of 5 December Confirmed up to 25 per 10, Tartu (Estonian pronunciation: South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital chaletsvolcanos.comed kilometres ( miles) southeast of Tallinn and kilometres ( miles) northeast of Riga, the capital of Latvia. Estland may refer to. Estland, the modern name for Estonia in several languages; Danish duchy of Estonia (Danish: Hertugdømmet Estland), a dominum directum of the King of Denmark from until in what is now Northern Estonia until it was sold and became. Estland [ ˈeːstlant; ˈɛstlant] (estnisch Eesti [ ˈeːsʲti ], amtlich Republik Estland, estnisch Eesti Vabariik) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als nördlichster der drei baltischen Staaten grenzt es im Süden an Lettland, im Osten an Russland sowie im Norden und Westen an die Ostsee. Estland [ˈeːstlant; ˈɛstlant] (estnisch Eesti [ ˈeːsʲti], amtlich Republik Estland, estnisch Eesti Vabariik) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als nördlichster der drei. Geographisch liegt Estland jedoch im Baltikum. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Name; 2 Geschichte. Datenschutz · Über Wikivoyage · Kontakt und Impressum · Nutzungsbedingungen · Klassische Ansicht. Estland gehört zu den drei baltischen Staaten. [chaletsvolcanos.coms Transaviabaltika) mit kleinen Propellermaschinen vom Typ [chaletsvolcanos.comdia.​org/wiki/. The Estonian Defence Forces consist of land Arsenal Gegen Liverpoolnavyand air force. Nicholas' and the Church of the Holy Ghost. The kannel is a native instrument that is now again becoming more popular in Estonia. The Bronze Age started around BC, and Jauch Bitcoin the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. Merkblätter zu häufigen Infektions- und Tropenkrankheiten zum Download. Januar englisch. Nach einer Bearbeitungszeit von wenigen Wochen, einer Prüfung durch das estnische Grenzschutzamt und der Zahlung einer Bearbeitungsgebühr Euro im März [40] kann dann eine Karte mit Chip und Lesegerät in Estland oder in vielen estnischen Botschaften Karte Las Vegas werden.
Wikipedia Estland Estonia (Estonian: Eesti ()), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern chaletsvolcanos.com is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and chaletsvolcanos.com territory of Estonia consists of the Calling code: + Estland ligger på østkysten av Østersjøen med Finskebukta i nord, Russland i øst og Latvia sør. Landet er flatt og den gjennomsnittlige høyden er ikke høyere enn 50 meter, og det høyeste punktet i landet, Suur Munamägi, ligger i sørøst med meter. [trenger referanse] Grunnfjellet er dekket av et skikt kalkstein, sandstein og chaletsvolcanos.com i nord er preget av Flagg: Riksvåpen. Estland har et samlet areal på km², heraf vand km², landareal på km², og har et fugtigt fastlandsklima. Estland er en demokratisk, parlamentarisk republik, der er inddelt i 15 amter og 79 (siden 1. november ) kommuner, og dets hovedstad og største by er chaletsvolcanos.comndte regionale sprog: Võro, Setu.
Wikipedia Estland In the s, Estonian baritone Georg Ots rose to Wikipedia Estland prominence as an opera singer. Nach der Unabhängigkeit wurde Russisch als erste Neue Solitaire Spiele durch Englisch ersetzt. Other instruments, including the fiddlezitherconcertinaand accordion are Email Live De Login to play polka or other dance music. Currently [ when? Laar, Mart Estland ist Alles Spitze parlamentarische Republik. Peamiselt Jetztspielen Mario see maapiirkonnast suurtesse linnadesse, sh Tallinna, viimase kümne aasta jooksul elama asunuid. In: Estonian Wildlife Tours. Eesti Vabariigi riigihümn on " Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja Reservex ". Es gibt fünf öffentlich-rechtliche Radioprogramme. Www Mrgreen Com ledamöter stiftar lagar, godkänner statsbudgeten och övervakar regeringens och de verkställande organens arbete, samt ratificerar internationella överenskommelser. Põhjapoolseim saar on Vaindloo saar.
Wikipedia Estland

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Der

Januar statt. US-Dollar brachten. Estland hat mit Stand Euro wurden vor allem im Bereich Bankwesen und Telekommunikation getätigt.

Dadurch bleibt auch die Zahlungsbilanz inkl. Wer keinen eigenen Rechner hat, darf gratis an einem von öffentlichen Terminals in Postämtern, Bibliotheken oder Dorfläden ins Netz.

Alle Schulen sind online. Estland verfügt über die meisten Internetanschlüsse pro Kopf weltweit. Estland gibt an, das weltweit technologisch modernste Verwaltungssystem zu haben.

Jeder Bürger besitzt eine ID-Nummer. Wegen der damit verbundenen Verwundbarkeit durch Cyber-Angriffe wurden Backupserver in Luxemburg eingerichtet.

Sie enthalten die digitale Verwaltungssoftware Estlands und die Datensätze der Bürger. Estland weist eine Rate von einem Elektroauto pro Einwohner auf.

Der internationale Personenverkehr beschränkt sich auf Verbindungen nach Moskau und St. Petersburg, wobei diese wegen wiederkehrender Betriebsprobleme, die vor allem auf die anhaltenden Spannungen mit Russland zurückgehen, nicht sonderlich rentabel sind.

Immer wieder fallen Züge aus; weiterhin benötigen sowohl Esten als auch estnische Russen zur Einreise nach Russland ein Visum, das im Voraus bezogen werden muss, vergleichsweise teuer ist und durchaus nicht immer rechtzeitig ausgestellt wird.

Mittlerweile ist auch in den Zügen drahtloses Internet verfügbar, wenn auch nur in der 1. Somit wird auch ein Schienenverkehr bis Berlin möglich.

Das Projekt wird von der EU finanziell unterstützt und soll abgeschlossen werden. Daneben existieren ein weiterer internationaler Flughafen in Tartu sowie kleinere Flughäfen in Pärnu , Kuressaare und Kärdla sowie auf Kihnu und Ruhnu.

Estland war durch seine politische Entwicklung und Besiedlungsgeschichte immer ein interkulturelles Land. Die Oberherrschaft hatte zunächst Dänemark, — der Deutsche Orden , danach Schweden und im Jahrhundert Russland.

Die estnische Kultur und Architektur wurde über einen Zeitraum von etwa Jahren stark durch die ortsansässige deutschbaltische Oberschicht geprägt.

Vom Mittelalter bis weit ins Jahrhundert bildeten die deutschen Kaufleute das tonangebende Element in Tallinn. Ab setzte eine verstärkte Russifizierung unter den Zaren ein.

Ein Gegengewicht dazu bildeten baltische Studentenverbindungen und ab den er Jahren vor allem die Universität Tartu Dorpat. In der Wissenschaft blieb der westliche Einfluss — wie auch im zaristischen Russland — stark, allein schon durch die bis deutschsprachige Universität.

So erhielt sie durch Initiative deutscher Wissenschaftler die Sternwarte Dorpat , und auch die folgenden 7 Direktoren bis kamen aus Deutschland.

Der berühmteste, Friedrich Wilhelm Struve , wechselte allerdings an die neu errichtete Sternwarte Pulkowo bei St.

Einen kulturellen Umbruch erfuhr Estlands Kultur durch den Verlust deutscher und schwedischer Bevölkerungsanteile infolge des Zweiten Weltkriegs und den Zuzug von Russen und anderer Volksgruppen während der sowjetischen Zeit.

Seit dem Ende der Sowjetzeit orientiert sich die estnische Kultur wegen der Verwandtschaft des Estnischen zum Finnischen stark am nördlichen Nachbarn Finnland.

Sie ist weitgehend westlich ausgerichtet und unterhält zahlreiche Kooperationen mit deutschen Gesellschaften, evangelischen Kirchen Nordelbische Kirche und Universitäten Göttingen, Greifswald, Kiel, Konstanz, München und Münster.

Jahrhundert digital zu dokumentieren. So ist es üblich, dass man noch finnische, schwedische, russische, englische und deutsche Sender empfängt.

Spartenprogramme sind aufgrund des kleinen Marktes in Estland nicht vertreten. Wie auch in Skandinavien ist es im Baltikum wegen der hohen Übersetzungskosten weitgehend üblich, dass die Sender ausländische Fernsehproduktionen im Original mit estnischen Untertitel-Einblendungen senden, also ohne Synchronübersetzung wie in Deutschland.

Es gibt fünf öffentlich-rechtliche Radioprogramme. Vikerraadio ist das informationsorientierte Hauptprogramm. Klassikaraadio bringt Klassik, Folklore, Jazz und Weltmusik.

Mit einer Gesamtauflage von Tageszeitungen pro Einwohnern hat Estland eine der höchsten Zeitungsleseraten der Welt.

Weltweit bekannt ist Arvo Pärt , ein zeitgenössischer Komponist moderner Klassik. Rudolf Tobias , ausgangs des Eduard Tubin machte im Ester Mägi schreibt ähnlich wie Veljo Tormis viele Kompositionen und Volkslieder für Chor um, die während der Besatzungszeit der Sowjetunion in Vergessenheit zu geraten drohten und seit der Unabhängigkeit sehr populär geworden sind.

Zu erwähnen ist das alle fünf Jahre stattfindende Sängerfest , wo Zehntausende, vereint zu einem Chor, nationales Liedgut singen. Der Eurovision Song Contest fand daraufhin in Tallinn statt.

Die estnischen Städte werden immer noch von den Holzhäusern geprägt, auch wenn die sowjetischen Plattenbauten dazwischen ragen.

Heutzutage wird viel mit Schiefer gebaut. In den Tagen des Staatsstreiches in Moskau August sollte er von russischen Truppen besetzt werden, was durch die estnische Polizei und Demonstranten verhindert wurde.

Der Turm gehört trotzdem nicht zu den besonderen nationalen Symbolen des neuen Estland. Der Sport hat in Estland einen hohen Stellenwert.

Nach deren Ende und der estnischen Unabhängigkeit formierten sich die nationalen Sportverbände erneut. Auch bei der Ästhetischen Gruppengymnastik ist Estland eine Hochburg.

Eesti ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel. Siehe auch : Liste der Kriege und Schlachten Estlands. Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt bedarf einer Überarbeitung.

Näheres sollte auf der Diskussionsseite angegeben sein. Siehe auch : Liste estnischer Dirigenten. Tambur: Estonia square kilometers larger than thought.

Abgerufen am Juli In: millenniumindicators. September In: Estonian Wildlife Tours. Oktober amerikanisches Englisch.

Oktober Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, , S. Voting to Become Citizens. Dezember Russian forces gradually conquered the majority of Livonia, but in the late s the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish armies started their own offensives and the bloody war finally ended in with Russian defeat.

In , the Polish-Swedish War broke out, causing further devastation. The protracted war ended in with Sweden gaining Livonia , including the regions of Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia.

While serfdom was retained under Swedish rule, legal reforms took place which strengthened peasants' land usage and inheritance rights, resulting this period's reputation of the "Good Old Swedish Time" in people's historical memory.

Printing presses were also established in both towns. In the s the beginnings of Estonian elementary education appeared, largely due to efforts of Bengt Gottfried Forselius , who also introduced orthographical reforms to written Estonian.

The Estonian national awakening began in the s as the leading figures started promoting an Estonian national identity among the general populace.

Its economic basis was formed by widespread farm buyouts by peasants, forming a class of Estonian landowners. In Johann Voldemar Jannsen started publishing the first Estonian language newspaper and began popularising the denomination of oneself as eestlane Estonian.

The moderate wing led by Hurt focused on development of culture and Estonian education, while the radical wing led by Jacobson started demanding increased political and economical rights.

In the late 19th century the Russification period started, as the central government initiated various administrative and cultural measures to tie Baltic governorates more closely to the empire.

In the early 20th century Estonians started taking over control of local governments in towns from Germans.

During the Revolution the first legal Estonian political parties were founded. An Estonian national congress was convened and demanded the unification of Estonian areas into a single autonomous territory and an end to Russification.

During the unrest peasants and workers attacked manor houses. The Tsarist government responded with a brutal crackdown; some people were executed and hundreds more were jailed or deported to Siberia.

In , after the February Revolution , the governorate of Estonia was expanded to include Estonian speaking areas of Livonia and was granted autonomy, enabling formation of the Estonian Provincial Assembly.

However the Provincial Assembly established the Salvation Committee , and during the short interlude between Russian retreat and German arrival , the committee declared the independence of Estonia on 24 February , and formed the Estonian Provisional Government.

German occupation immediately followed, but after their defeat in World War I the Germans were forced to hand over power to the Provisional Government on 19 November.

Renewed Soviet attacks failed, and in spring, the Estonian army, in co-operation with White Russian forces, advanced into Russia and Latvia.

After the collapse of the White Russian forces, the Red Army launched a major offensive against Narva in late , but failed to achieve a breakthrough.

On 2 February , the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed between Estonia and Soviet Russia, with the latter pledging to permanently give up all sovereign claims to Estonia.

In April , the Estonian Constituent Assembly was elected. The Constituent Assembly passed a sweeping land reform expropriating large estates, and adopted a new highly liberal constitution establishing Estonia as a parliamentary democracy.

Päts, together with general Johan Laidoner and Kaarel Eenpalu , established an authoritarian regime well known as the " Era of Silence ", where the parliament was dissolved and the newly established Patriotic League became the only legal political party.

Opposition candidates were allowed to participate, but only as independents, while opposition parties remained banned. Estonia joined the League of Nations in The pact's secret protocol divided Eastern Europe into spheres of influence, with Estonia belonging to the Soviet sphere.

The Estonian government felt that it had no choice but to comply, and the treaty was signed on 28 September. On the same day, the airliner Kaleva was shot down by the Soviet Air Force.

Feeling that resistance was hopeless, the Estonian government complied and, on the next day, the whole country was occupied. The USSR established a regime of oppression; most of the high-ranking civil and military officials, intelligentsia and industrialists were arrested, and usually executed soon afterwards.

Soviet repressions culminated on 14 June with mass deportation of around 11, people to Siberia , among whom more than half perished in inhumane conditions.

Soviet destruction battalions initiated a scorched earth policy. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD.

In July, German Wehrmacht reached south Estonia. Initially many Estonians were hopeful that Germany would help to restore Estonia's independence, but this soon proved to be in vain.

Only a puppet collaborationist administration was established, and occupied Estonia was merged into Reichskommissariat Ostland , with its economy being fully subjugated to German military needs.

Numerous forced labour camps were established where thousands of Estonians, foreign Jews, Romani , and Soviet prisoners of war perished. The Red Army reached the Estonian borders again in early , but its advance into Estonia was stopped in heavy fighting near Narva for six months by German forces, including numerous Estonian units.

Thousands of Estonians opposing the second Soviet occupation joined a guerrilla movement known as Forest Brothers. The armed resistance was heaviest in the first few years after the war, but Soviet authorities gradually wore it down through attrition, and resistance effectively ceased to exist in the mids.

In March about 20, Estonians were deported to Siberia. Collectivization was fully completed soon afterwards. The Soviet Union began Russification , with hundreds of thousands of Russians and people of other Soviet nationalities being induced to settle in Estonia, which eventually threatened to turn Estonians into a minority in their own land.

The introduction of Perestroika in made political activity possible again, starting an independence restoration process known as the Singing Revolution.

Over the next two years almost all other Soviet Republics followed the Estonian lead issuing similar declarations. Soviet authorities recognised Estonian independence on 6 September, and on 17 September Estonia was admitted into the United Nations.

In radical economic reforms were launched for switching over to a market economy, including privatisation and currency reform. Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea immediately across the Gulf of Finland, on the level northwestern part of the rising East European platform between Estonia's number of islands and islets in the Baltic Sea is estimated at some 2,, and the country has 2, including those in lakes.

Two of them are large enough to constitute separate counties: Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. Estonia has over 1, lakes. There are many rivers in the country.

Estonia is situated in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate.

Estonia has four seasons of near-equal length. Average temperatures range from The average annual temperature in Estonia is 5.

Snow cover, which is deepest in the south-eastern part of Estonia, usually lasts from mid-December to late March. Many species extinct in most of the European countries can be still found in Estonia.

Mammals present in Estonia include the grey wolf , lynx , brown bear , red fox , badger , wild boar , moose , red deer , roe deer , beaver , otter , grey seal , and ringed seal.

Critically endangered European mink has been successfully reintroduced to the island of Hiiumaa , and the rare Siberian flying squirrel is present in east Estonia.

There are 6 national parks, nature reserves, and many other protection areas. Estonia is a unitary parliamentary republic. The unicameral parliament Riigikogu serves as the legislative and the government as the executive.

Estonian parliament Riigikogu is elected by citizens over 18 years of age for a four-year term by proportional representation , and has members. Riigikogu's responsibilities include approval and preservation of the national government, passing legal acts, passing the state budget, and conducting parliamentary supervision.

The Government of Estonia is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia at recommendation of the President, and approved by the Riigikogu. The government, headed by the Prime Minister, represent the political leadership of the country and carry out domestic and foreign policy.

Ministers head ministries and represent its interests in the government. Sometimes ministers with no associated ministry are appointed, known as ministers without portfolio.

The head of the state is the President who has primarily representative and ceremonial role. The president is elected by the Riigikogu, or by a special electoral college.

The President proclaims the laws passed in the Riigikogu, and has right to refuse proclamation and return law in question for a new debate and decision.

If Riigikogu passes the law unamended, then the President has right to propose to the Supreme Court to declare the law unconstitutional.

The President also represents the country in international relations. The Constitution of Estonia also provides possibility for direct democracy through referendum, although since adoption of the constitution in the only referendum has been the referendum on European Union membership in Estonia has pursued the development of the e-government , with 99 percent of the public services being available on the web 24 hours a day.

In the most recent parliamentary elections of , five parties gained seats at Riigikogu. The Constitution of Estonia is the fundamental law, establishing the constitutional order based on five principles: human dignity, democracy, rule of law, social state, and the Estonian identity.

The first instance are county courts which handle all criminal and civil cases, and administrative courts which hear complaints about government and local officials, and other public disputes.

The second instance are district courts which handle appeals about the first instance decisions. Estonia is a unitary country with a single-tier local government system.

Local affairs are managed autonomously by local governments. Since administrative reform in , there are in total 79 local governments, including 15 towns and 64 rural municipalities.

All municipalities have equal legal status and form part of a county , which is a state administrative unit.

The council appoints local government, headed by a mayor. For additional decentralization the local authorities may form municipal districts with limited authority, currently those have been formed in Tallinn and Hiiumaa.

Separately from administrative units there are also settlement units : village, small borough, borough, and town.

Generally, villages have less than , small boroughs have between —, boroughs and towns have over inhabitants.

Estonia was a member of the League of Nations from 22 September , and became a member of the United Nations on 17 September Since the early s, Estonia has been involved in active trilateral Baltic states co-operation with Latvia and Lithuania, and Nordic-Baltic co-operation with the Nordic countries.

The beginning of the attempt to redefine Estonia as "Nordic" was seen in December , when then Estonian foreign minister and President of Estonia from until Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs , [] with potential political calculation behind it being wish to distinguish Estonia from more slowly progressing southern neighbours, which could have postponed early participation in European Union enlargement for Estonia too.

Relations with Russia remain generally cold, though there is some practical co-operation. The Estonian Defence Forces consist of land forces , navy , and air force.

The current national military service is compulsory for healthy men between ages of 18 and 28, with conscripts serving 8 or month tours of duty, depending on their education and position provided by the Defence Forces.

The planned wartime size of the Defence Forces is 60, personnel, including 21, personnel in high readiness reserve. The Estonian Defence League is a voluntary national defence organisation under management of Ministry of Defence.

It is organized based on military principles, has its own military equipment, and provides various different military training for its members, including in guerilla tactics.

The Defence League has 16, members, with additional 10, volunteers in its affiliated organisations. Estonia co-operates with Latvia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives.

Estonia joined NATO in Since Estonia has participated in numerous international security and peacekeeping missions, including: Afghanistan , Iraq , Lebanon , Kosovo , and Mali.

Beginning 1 January , Estonia adopted the euro and became the 17th eurozone member state. Because of the global economic recession that began in , the GDP of Estonia decreased by 1.

The Estonian government made a supplementary negative budget, which was passed by Riigikogu. The revenue of the budget was decreased for by EEK 6.

The country has been experiencing economic growth ever since. The unemployment rate in March was 6. Estonia's economy continues to benefit from a transparent government and policies that sustain a high level of economic freedom , ranking 6th globally and 2nd in Europe.

A simplified tax system with flat rates and low indirect taxation, openness to foreign investment, and a liberal trade regime have supported the resilient and well-functioning economy.

In , a stable currency, the kroon , was established. It is issued by the Bank of Estonia , the country's central bank.

The kroon succeeded the mark in and was used until After Estonia regained its independence, the kroon was reintroduced in Since re-establishing independence , Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West.

The rate is set by the Local Council within the limits of 0. It is one of the most important sources of funding for municipalities. Very few exemptions are considered on the land value tax and even public institutions are subject to the tax.

In , Estonia experienced its worst year economically since it regained independence in , largely because of the impact of the Russian financial crisis.

With assistance from the European Union, the World Bank and the Nordic Investment Bank , Estonia completed most of its preparations for European Union membership by the end of and now has one of the strongest economies of the new member states of the European Union.

Although Estonia is in general resource-poor, the land still offers a large variety of smaller resources. Significant quantities of rare-earth oxides are found in tailings accumulated from 50 years of uranium ore , shale and loparite mining at Sillamäe.

Since , public debate has discussed whether Estonia should build a nuclear power plant to secure energy production after closure of old units in the Narva Power Plants , if they are not reconstructed by the year Food, construction, and electronic industries are currently among the most important branches of Estonia's industry.

In some areas the coastal seawater is polluted, mainly around the Sillamäe industrial complex. Estonia is a dependent country in the terms of energy and energy production.

In recent years many local and foreign companies have been investing in renewable energy sources. Currently [ when? The electricity market as whole will be liberalised by Together with Lithuania, Poland, and Latvia, the country considered participating in constructing the Visaginas nuclear power plant in Lithuania to replace the Ignalina.

Estonia has a strong information technology sector , partly owing to the Tiigrihüpe project undertaken in the mids, and has been mentioned as the most "wired" and advanced country in Europe in the terms of e-Government of Estonia.

It is even claimed that Estonia has the most startups per person in the world. The Estonian electricity network forms a part of the Nord Pool Spot network.

Estonia has had a market economy since the end of the s and one of the highest per capita income levels in Eastern Europe. Several cryptocurrency trading platforms are officially recognised by the government, such as CoinMetro.

In , however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency , which was pegged to the Euro, highlighting the need for growth in export-generating industries.

Estonia exports mainly machinery and equipment, wood and paper, textiles, food products, furniture, and metals and chemical products.

Between and , Estonia received The share of Baltic Germans in Estonia had fallen from 5. At the end of the s, Estonians [ who?

Modern Estonia is a fairly ethnically heterogeneous country, but this heterogeneity is not a feature of much of the country as the non-Estonian population is concentrated in two of Estonia's counties.

Russians make up The Estonian Cultural Autonomy law that was passed in was unique in Europe at that time. Before the Soviet occupation , the Germans and Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council.

Historically, large parts of Estonia's northwestern coast and islands have been populated by indigenous ethnically Rannarootslased Coastal Swedes.

In recent years the numbers of Coastal Swedes has risen again, numbering in almost people, owing to the property reforms in the beginning of the s.

In , the Ingrian Finnish minority in Estonia elected a cultural council and was granted cultural autonomy.

The Estonian Swedish minority similarly received cultural autonomy in Estonian society has undergone considerable changes over the last twenty years, one of the most notable being the increasing level of stratification, and the distribution of family income.

The Gini coefficient has been steadily higher than the European Union average 31 in , [] although it has clearly dropped. The registered unemployment rate in January was 7.

Modern Estonia is a multinational country in which languages are spoken, according to a census. The United Nations Human Rights Council report called "extremely credible" the description of the citizenship policy of Estonia as "discriminatory".

Estonian Russians have developed their own identity — more than half of the respondents recognised that Estonian Russians differ noticeably from the Russians in Russia.

When comparing the result with a survey from , then Russians' attitude toward the future is much more positive. Estonia has been the first post-Soviet republic that has legalised civil unions of same-sex couples.

The law was approved in October and came into effect 1 January The image that Estonian youths have of their identity is rather similar to that of the Finns as far as the identities of being a citizen of one's own country, a Fenno-Ugric person, or a Nordic person are concerned, while our identity as a citizen of Europe is common ground between us and Latvians — being stronger here than it is among the young people of Finland and Sweden.

Tallinn is the capital and the largest city of Estonia, and lies on the northern coast of Estonia, along the Gulf of Finland.

There are 33 cities and several town-parish towns in the country. In total, there are 47 linn a, with "linn" in English meaning both "cities" and "towns".

Estonia has a rich and diverse religious history, but in recent years it has become increasingly secular, with either a plurality or a majority of the population declaring themselves nonreligious in recent censuses, followed by those who identify as religiously "undeclared".

The largest minority groups are the various Christian denominations , principally Lutheran and Orthodox Christians, with very small numbers of adherents in non-Christian faiths, namely Judaism , Islam and Buddhism.

In ancient Estonia, prior to Christianization and according to Livonian Chronicle of Henry , Tharapita was the predominant deity for the Oeselians.

Estonia was Christianised by the Catholic Teutonic Knights in the 13th century. The Protestant Reformation led to the establishment of the Lutheran church in Many Estonians profess not to be particularly religious, because religion through the 19th century was associated with German feudal rule.

Today, Estonia's constitution guarantees freedom of religion, separation of church and state, and individual rights to privacy of belief and religion.

Other organisations, such as the World Council of Churches, report that there are as many as , Estonian Lutherans. However, the census indicated that Eastern Orthodoxy had surpassed Lutheranism, accounting for Eastern Orthodoxy is practised chiefly by the Russian minority.

Roman Catholics are a small minority in Estonia. They are organised under the Latin Apostolic Administration of Estonia. According to the census of data in table to the right , there were about 1, adherents of the Taara faith [] [] [] or Maausk in Estonia see Maavalla Koda.

The Jewish community has an estimated population of about 1, see History of the Jews in Estonia , and the Muslim community numbers just over 1, Around 68, people consider themselves atheists.

The official language, Estonian , belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. Estonian is closely related to Finnish, spoken in Finland, across the other side of the Gulf of Finland , and is one of the few languages of Europe that is not of an Indo-European origin.

Despite some overlaps in the vocabulary due to borrowings, in terms of its origin, Estonian and Finnish are not related to their nearest geographical neighbours, Swedish , Latvian , and Russian, which are all Indo-European languages.

Although the Estonian and Germanic languages are of very different origins, one can identify many similar words in Estonian and German. This is primarily because the Estonian language has borrowed nearly one third of its vocabulary from Germanic languages , mainly from Low Saxon Middle Low German during the period of German rule , and High German including standard German.

The percentage of Low Saxon and High German loanwords can be estimated at 22—25 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent. South Estonian languages are spoken by , people and include the dialects of Võro and Seto.

The languages are spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, are genealogically distinct from northern Estonian: but are traditionally and officially considered as dialects and "regional forms of the Estonian language", not separate language s.

Russian is by far the most spoken minority language in the country. There are towns in Estonia with large concentrations of Russian speakers and there are towns where Estonian speakers are in the minority especially in the northeast, e.

Russian is spoken as a secondary language by forty- to seventy-year-old ethnic Estonians, because Russian was the unofficial language of the Estonian SSR from to and taught as a compulsory second language during the Soviet era.

From the 13th to the 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia, particularly in the coastal areas and on the islands e.

Endast en liten del av landet kan användas till jordbruk. Inom jordbrukssektorn dominerar mjölkproduktion och boskapshantering, särskilt svinavel.

Landet har stora förekomster av oljeskiffer , som bryts för framställning av gas och petrokemiska produkter. I jämförelse med andra tidigare sovjetrepubliker har Estland högst levnadsstandard.

Estland var under medeltiden bas för Tyska orden. Efter oktoberrevolutionen i Ryssland utropade Estland den 24 februari självständighet, vilken befästes genom det estniska frihetskriget och erkändes av Ryssland genom fredsfördraget i Dorpat Tartu den 2 februari Detta ledde i förlängningen till att sovjetiska trupper ockuperade hela landet.

Detta parlament proklamerade sedermera Estlands införlivning i Sovjetunionen. Sverige var bland de första länderna att erkänna Estland som en del av Sovjetunionen.

Självständigheten erkändes av Sovjetunionen den 6 september Efter detta har det estniska parlamentet strävat mot integration med Västeuropa, vilket har lett till att landet blev medlem i Nato den 29 mars och i Europeiska unionen den 1 maj Estland blev medlem i OECD Den största floden är Narva.

Se även städer i Estland. Estland är en republik och en parlamentarisk demokrati. Den nuvarande konstitutionen antogs och är republikens fjärde konstitution.

Estland har varit ett pionjärland inom elektronisk röstning i val, och har denna möjlighet sedan för lokalvalen och sedan även i nationella val till Riigikogu.

Väljare har därefter möjlighet att ändra sin elektroniska förhandsröst i vallokalen. Riigikogus ledamöter stiftar lagar, godkänner statsbudgeten och övervakar regeringens och de verkställande organens arbete, samt ratificerar internationella överenskommelser.

Estlands president är landets statschef och har huvudsakligen ceremoniella och representativa plikter. Presidentens signatur krävs för att de lagar som parlamentet stiftar ska träda i kraft och presidenten har rätt att skicka tillbaka lagar som anses vara oförenliga med landets konstitution, vilket i praktiken sällan händer.

Der kan ikke udskrives valg i utide. Beslutninger, herunder vedtagelse af love, sker ved almindeligt flertal [22]. Regeringens virksomhed omfatter [26] blandt andet:.

Han er i ledelsen af sit kancelli sidestillet med en minister [30]. Et dokument, der ikke er i overensstemmelse med loven, indstilles af ham til annulering ved dom [31].

Kommunister og socialister er helt forsvundet ud af estisk politik. Estland er underinddelt i amter maakond samt i land- og bykommuner.

Det gennemsnitlige antal indbyggere per kommune steg fra 6. Ved valget til kommunalbestyrelserne var antallet af medlemmer reduceret fra ved det forrige valg til Staten og kommunerne vil overtage opgaver fra amterne.

Estlands statsejede energiselskab, Eesti Energia , hvis produktion er baseret i Narva , er landets 2.

Store dele af den estiske befolkning blev under sovjettiden tvangsforflyttet til sibiriske arbejdslejre, lige som aktive politiske modstandere af sovjetstyret gik samme vej.

I almindelighed spiller religion kun en rolle for en mindre del af befolkningen. Mindre grupper blandt esterne har i lighed med flertallet af russere tilsluttet sig den russisk-ortodokse kirke, der imidlertid er delt i en estisk og en russisk kirke.

En national estisk litteratur begyndte i midten af tallet, da Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald sammenskrev det estiske nationalepos " Kalevipoeg ".

Republikken Estland. Eesti Vabariik estisk.

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